This review paper aimed to explore the positive/negative impact of spirituality on mental health and to highlight the differences between religion and spirituality with the aid of previous studies and research. To achieve this goal, the researcher reviewed, analyzed previous studies during the period from 1950 to 2021, through several sources, namely: Google Scholar, World Wide Science, SAGE journals, and PubMed. The results showed that spirituality has a significant impact on mental health, as a direct impact or a mediating factor. The impact varied between positive and/or negative because of the interaction of many other factors. In conclusion, we cannot confirm that spirituality has a positive or a negative effect only due to the role of other factors besides most of the studies are conducted on patients who suffer physical and mental health problems and neglect other people who are mentally and physically well. There is a need to explore additional factors, which may alter the effect of spirituality on mental health. Moreover, further studies are needed to include other samples, not only patients.
Keywords: Spirituality, Religion, Mental health, Transcendence.
Iman B. ALHOSNI, Psychology, Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of OMAN