سؤال المنهج في اللسانيات: تحوّلات من مفهوم الواقع عند رينيه ديكارت إلى مفهوم الواقع الافتراضي
This study seeks to identify the ontological and epistemological foundations of linguistic theory, in light of recent developments in scientific practice that takes language as its object. It requires a reconsideration of the existential concept of language and raises the issue of the existence of ontological and epistemological constants in linguistic theory. Taking into consideration the difference in the nature of linguistic sound and meaning. The approach adopted is historical and comparative, examining the major ontological and epistemological milestones. At the ontological level, the study notes that René Descartes linked the existence of language to mental existence, but the theory of relativity and statistical theory have transformed language into a virtual digital system, calling into question its ontological framework. Not to mention the fact that language is no longer merely a mental product, as evidenced by the existence of automatically generated linguistic texts. Epistemologically, the verification of linguistic knowledge has evolved, moving from logical proof to experimentation, and is now tied to utility and added value, with the virtual simulation of artificial intelligence as the environment for experimentation and proof.
Keywords: Ontology, Epistemology, Rationalism, Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Models, System, Theory, Methodology, Induction, Experimentation, Deduction, Proof, Linguistic Corpus, Relativity, Probabilities.
Salim RAMI, Habilitated professor in Computational linguistics, Multi-disciplinary Faculty of Safi, Qadi Ayyad University – MOROCCCO