الأشعرية وخصومها في بلاد شنقيط خلال القرن 12ه
It can be said that the Ash’arites appeared in a period when isolation and anthropomorphism prevailed, so it took a middle approach between the extremism of these and the extremism of those. Al-Ash’ari considered that limiting the science of theology alone – which is the path of the Mu’tazilah – or jurisprudence alone – which is the path of the Sunni jurists – does not benefit the religion، as much as the combination of the two benefits it.
In fact, there were other factors that helped the Ash’ari doctrine to triumph; Including the empowerment of the Seljuk state of the Ash’arites in Iraq and beyond, and the spread of the doctrine in Morocco at the hands of Ibn Tumart.
Al-Shanakateh followed the Ash’ari curriculum since the beginning of their scientific renaissance, but the flourishing of the Ash’ari school did not reach its peak until the middle of the twelfth century with Al-Mukhtar bin Bon، who graduated layers of scholars who are well-versed in theology, such as Al-Majidari bin Habib Allah. This man who turned the back of the shield to his sheikh and stood on the lookout for Ash’ari theology, misrepresenting the foundations on which it is based and the premises on which it is based “calling for a return to the Book and the Sunnah” and a return to their direct rulings.
The Hijazi intellectual environment had a great impact on our friend, especially with regard to sticking firmly to the opinions of the predecessors related to hadith and its chains and texts.
Keywords: Ash’ari, Mu’tazila, Theology, Anthropomorphism, Analogy, Interpretation, Gain, Attributes, Opinions of the Predecessors.
Dr. Mohamed Lemine Mohamed El WELY, Professor of Islamic Tought at the Islamic, University of Al-Ayoun – Mauritania