طارق بن زياد فاتح الأندلس، دراسة تاريخية عسكرية
This study, “Tariq bin Ziyad, Conqueror of Andalusia: A Historical and Military Study”, seeks to identify important historical incidents in Islamic history (the Conquest of Andalusia), which were associated with a distinguished leader (Tariq bin Ziyad), and to identify their political and military dimensions and effects on Andalusia, the Islamic empire and southwestern Europe at the end of the first century AH/seventh century CE. It shows the importance of what Tariq bin Ziyad achieved by successive victories in a record time extending from the year 92-95 AH/711-714 CE, through which and with the help of his leader Musa bin Naseer, he succeeded in opening a wide territory, the Iberian Peninsula, which today includes Spain and Portugal. The study sheds light on the nature of Andalusia; its geographical, human and political conditions before the conquest; the political, military and religious factors; and the personal qualifications that helped Tariq bin Ziyad succeed in achieving his great achievements. This study endeavours to follow the steps of the Conquest of Andalusia, and the preparation to ensure the progress of the process of conquest according to studied steps that are guaranteed success. The importance of the study is evident in its attempt to show the various aspects of the operations of the Conquest of Andalusia on the political, religious, cultural and civilizational levels
It traces the problem of Tariq bin Ziyad’s crossing; trying to explain the truth of his sermon; addressing the issue of burning ships as reported by some late sources; tracing his path in the Conquest of Andalusia in coordination with its commander Musa bin Naseer; highlighting the military systems, military mobilization and leadership characteristics that distinguished the commander Tariq bin Ziyad. The study demonstrates that the conquest process was a well-thought-out and calculated plan in all its steps and was carried out under the supervision of the Umayyad Caliph in Damascus Al-Waleed bin Abdul-Malik and in coordination and follow-up with the governor of Africa, Musa bin Naseer, with the field commanders (Tariq bin Ziyad) granted extensive field powers in making plans and the mobilization of armies in proportion to the nature and topography of the land and the circumstances surrounding the military operations.
Keywords: Andalusia, Fatah, Tariq bin Ziyad, Tariq Strait, Iberian Peninsula, Tariq’s sermon, burning ships, Musa bin Nusair, Battle of Wadi Berbat.
Dr. Khalid Ismail Nayef AL HAMADANI, Associate Professor of History and Islamic Civilization, Department of Social Sciences – College of Literature Bahrain University – BAHRAIN.